"Deep Dive into Supervised Learning: Understanding Regression and Classification"

Blog post description.

3/19/20243 min read


A fundamental idea in machine learning is supervised learning, in which an algorithm gains knowledge from labeled data in order to forecast or choose a course of action. The two primary categories of tasks in supervised learning are classification and regression. We'll dig deep into supervised learning in this thorough book, covering algorithms, evaluation measures, and real-world applications as well as the similarities and differences between regression and classification. Gaining knowledge of these ideas will help you see how supervised learning can be used to a variety of issues in a variety of fields.

Understanding Supervised Learning

In supervised learning, an algorithm picks up knowledge from labeled data—that is, input features with labels matching to their outputs—by means of supervised learning. The objective is to learn a mapping between input attributes and output labels so that the algorithm can predict values for data that hasn't been seen yet. Regression and classification are the two primary categories into which supervised learning tasks can be roughly divided.


Making predictions about a continuous target variable using input features is the aim of the supervised learning task known as regression. The output variable in regression is quantitative and has a range of possible real values. Typical regression algorithms consist of the following:

  • Linear Regression

  • Polynomial Regression

  • Ridge Regression

  • Lasso Regression

  • Support Vector Regression (SVR)

  • Decision Tree Regression

  • Random Forest Regression


Predicting the category or class label of a data point based on input features is the aim of classification, another kind of supervised learning assignment. The output variable in classification is categorical and might have discrete values that correspond to several classes or categories. Typical classification algorithms consist of the following:

  • Logistic Regression

  • Decision Trees

  • Random Forest

  • Support Vector Machines (SVM)

  • KNearest Neighbors (KNN)

  • Naive Bayes

Differences Between Regression and Classification

While both regression and classification are supervised learning tasks, there are significant differences between them:

  • Output Variable: Whereas the output variable in classification is discrete and categorical, the output variable in regression is continuous and quantitative.

  • Prediction Task: While assigning a data point to a certain category or class is the aim of classification, regression aims to predict a numerical value, such as price, temperature, or stock price.

  • Evaluation Metrics: Regression and classification problems employ different assessment measures. Metrics like accuracy, precision, recall, and F1score are often used for classification, while Mean Squared Error (MSE) or Rsquared are frequently employed for regression.

Evaluation Metrics

When evaluating the performance of supervised learning models, it's essential to use appropriate evaluation metrics based on the task at hand. For regression tasks, common evaluation metrics include:

  • Mean Squared Error (MSE)

  • Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE)

  • Mean Absolute Error (MAE)

  • Rsquared (R2)

For classification tasks, common evaluation metrics include:

  • Accuracy

  • Precision

  • Recall

  • F1score

  • ROCAUC (Receiver Operating CharacteristicArea Under the Curve)

RealWorld Applications

Supervised learning has numerous realworld applications across various industries and domains. Some examples include:


  • estimating the cost of a home by taking into account factors including size, amenities, and location.

  • estimating sales income using past sales information and marketing spends.

  • calculating the patient's heart disease risk by looking at their medical history and demographics.


  • email content and sender information are used to detect spam emails.

  • customer reviews' sentiment is analysed to identify whether they are favorable or negative.

  • classifying images in order to recognize items or animals in pictures.


In summary, supervised learning is an effective machine learning paradigm that enables algorithms to gain knowledge from labeled data and generate predictions or judgments. Through a comprehensive comprehension of regression and classification principles, together with the corresponding algorithms, assessment criteria, and practical implementations, one may fully leverage supervised learning to address an extensive array of issues and stimulate creativity in diverse fields. Supervised learning provides countless chances for learning, experimenting, and discovery, regardless of your interest in making numerical value predictions or categorizing data.