• The Structure of a C Program

  • Writing C Programs

  • Building an Executable Version of a C Program

  • Debugging a C Program

  • Examining and Running a C Application Program

C Basics

  • Token in C language

  • Data Types and Variables

  • Identifiers

  • Keywords

  • Operators

  • Arithmetic Expressions

  • Input/Output Management

  • The Input/Output Concept

  • Formatted Input Function

Control-Flow Statements

  • The Control-Flow Program Statements

  • if-else Statements

  • Nested if-else

  • Else if Ladder

  • Switch Case

  • Break, Continue and Goto

Looping Statements

  • Advantages of Loops

  • Using Loops

  • For Loop

  • While Loop

  • Do-While Loop

  • Nested for Loops

Arrays in C Language

  • Why Use Arrays?

  • Using Arrays

  • Array Declaration

  • Array Initialization

  • Reading and Executing Array Elements

  • Types of Arrays

  • One-Dimensional Array

  • Multi-Dimensional Array


  • Uses of Strings

  • String Declaration

  • Reading and Printing String variables

  • String Manipulation

  • String Functions


  • Introduction to Function

  • Uses of Functions

  • Pre-defined Functions

  • Modular Programming with Functions

  • Function Categories

  • Types of Functions

  • Recursive Functions

  • Passing Arrays as Function parameters

  • Function prototyping

  • Call by value and call by reference

  • Local and Global variables


  • What is a Pointer?

  • Advantages of Pointers

  • Accessing a Pointer variable

  • Pointer Arithmetic

  • Pointers as Function parameters

  • Pointer to Arrays

  • Pointer to Strings

  • Pointer to pointers

  • Pointer to Structures


  • Defining a Structure

  • Creating a Structure variable

  • Accessing Structure members

  • Nested Structures

  • Structure to Functions

  • Typedef in C

  • Unions in C

Advanced Topics

  • Macros

  • Pre-processor directives

  • Dynamic Memory Allocation

  • Files

  • File Operations

Introduction to C++ Language

  • Introduction

  • C vs C++

  • Executing a sample C++ program

C++ Basics

  • Data types

  • Variables and constants

  • Identifiers

  • C++ keywords

  • Operators and Expressions

  • Input and Output Function

Control Structures

  • If-else

  • Else-if ladder

  • Switch case

  • For loops

  • While and do-while loops

  • Nested loops

  • Break and Continue

Arrays and Strings

  • Array Declaration in C++

  • Using Arrays

  • One-Dimensional and Multi-Dimensional Arrays

  • Strings Basics

  • String Functions

Functions and Pointers

  • Functions in C++

  • In-built functions

  • User-defined functions

  • Calling a function

  • Function Prototyping

  • Pointers in C++

  • Pointer operations

Object Oriented

  • Basics of OOPs

  • Classes and Objects

  • Member Functions

  • Member Variables

  • Constructors and Destructors

  • This pointer

  • Static members

  • Friend functions


  • Class inheritance

  • Types of inheritance

  • Function overriding

  • Multiple inheritance

  • Virtual functions


  • Basics of polymorphism

  • Operator overloading

  • Function overloading

  • Function overriding

  • Virtual Base class

  • Pure virtual functions

Interfaces and packages

  • What is an interface

  • Implementing interface

  • Abstract class

  • Data Abstraction

  • Packages

  • Creating and using packages

Exception handling

  • What is an Exception

  • How to handle an Exception

  • Try and Catch Block

  • Using throw Keyword

  • Throws

  • Custom Exceptions

I/O Streams

  • File Streams

  • File Handling in C++

  • Text and Binary file Handling

  • File operations


  • Introduction to Templates

  • Function and Class templates


  • To know the importance of C language

  • To know how to work with IDE

  • Able to learn programming techniques

  • Able to write looping mechanisms

  • To know how to use arrays

  • To know Arrays, Strings and Pointers

  • Able to learn Dynamic Memory allocation

  • To know complex programs

  • Able to know how to read and write data from files

  • Able to learn Macros

C Question and Answers

Differences between void main() and int main()?

Void main() means the main function doesn’t return any value, whereas int main() means functions return an integer value. For int main() return 0 is the standard for successful execution of a program. If you won’t keep anything before main() it will treat as int main().

Difference between a function definition and function declaration

Function declaration means we are telling the compiler about the size, type, and arguments. We are telling function prototype to the compiler. There will be no space allocated in the memory for a function declaration.

Function definition means when we write code inside a function. We will specify the return type. When we define a function memory will be allocated.

Examples for low-level language, middle-level, and high-level language

Low-level language – Machine language, one step upper to this is assembly language. Low-level language doesn’t need any compiler to convert the program

Middle-level language – C language. By using C we can write system programming and also application programming that’s why C is a middle language. C language uses a compiler to convert the program.

High-level language – Basic, Fortran, C++, Java, and Pascal. The high-level language is easy to write for a human. They needed compilers to convert the program.

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